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Rolls-Royce Group plc (the 'Company') is a company domiciled in the United Kingdom. The consolidated financial statements of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2005 comprise the Company and its subsidiaries (together referred to as the 'Group') and the Group's interest in jointly controlled entities. The financial statements were authorised for issue by the directors on February 8, 2006.
Basis of preparation and statement of compliance
In accordance with European Union (EU) regulations, these financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), as adopted for use in the EU effective at December 31, 2005, together with the amendment to IAS 19 Employee Benefits - as explained under post-retirement benefits below. The Company has elected to prepare its parent company accounts under UK Generally Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP).
These are the Group's first consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with adopted IFRS.
The Group has adopted the exemption granted by IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards that IAS 32 and IAS 39 Financial Instruments need not be applied to the comparative period. Consequently the restated results for the year ended December 31, 2004 have been prepared using the accounting policies for financial instruments previously adopted under UK GAAP. Additionally the following optional exemptions, provided by IFRS 1 from full retrospective application of IFRS accounting policies, have been applied:
- Business combinations - the provisions of IFRS 3 have been applied from January 1, 2004. The net carrying value of goodwill at December 31, 2003 under the previous accounting policies has been deemed to be the cost at January 1, 2004;
- Property, plant and equipment - where assets have previously been revalued, the revalued amount at January 1, 2004 has been deemed to be the cost at January 1, 2004;
- Cumulative translation differences arising on consolidation of overseas subsidiaries are required to be held in a separate reserve. This reserve has been deemed to be nil on January 1, 2004.
An explanation of how the transition to IFRS has affected the reported financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Group is provided in note 33, which also includes the balance sheet at January 1, 2005 showing the impact of the adoption of IAS 32 and IAS 39 in 2005.
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except where IFRS require an alternative treatment. The principal variations from the historical cost basis relate to pensions (IAS 19), monetary items (IAS 21), financial instruments (IAS 39) and share-based payments (IFRS 2).
The Group's significant accounting policies are set out below, together with the judgements made by management in applying these policies, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements, apart from those involving estimations, which are dealt with separately below. These accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements and in preparing an opening IFRS balance sheet at January 1, 2004 for the purposes of the transition to IFRS subject to the application of IFRS 1 as noted.
The accounting policies have been applied consistently by Group entities.
Basis of consolidation
The Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and all of its subsidiary undertakings made up to December 31, together with the Group's share of the results of joint ventures up to December 31.
A subsidiary is an entity controlled by the Company. Control exists when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly to govern the financial and operating policies of the entity so as to derive benefits from its activities.
A joint venture is an entity in which the Group holds a long-term interest and which is jointly controlled by the Group and one or more other venturers under a contractual arrangement. The results of joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.
Any subsidiary undertakings and joint ventures sold or acquired during the year are included up to, or from, the dates of change of control.
Significant accounting policies and judgements applied
Foreign currency translation
Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into local currency at the rate ruling at the year end. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions and the retranslation of assets and liabilities into sterling at the rate ruling at the year end are taken into account in determining profit before taxation.
The trading results of overseas undertakings are translated at the average exchange rates for the year. Exchange adjustments arising from the retranslation of the opening net investments, and from the translation of the profits or losses at average rates, are taken to equity. The net investment hedging of overseas undertakings is described under hedge accounting.
Revenues comprise sales to outside customers after discounts, excluding value added tax.
Sales of products are recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the customer, the sales price agreed and the receipt of payment can be assured. On occasion, the Group may participate in the financing of engines in conjunction with airframe manufacturers. In such circumstances, the contingent obligations arising under these arrangements are taken into account in assessing whether significant risk and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer. Where it is judged that sufficient risks and rewards are not transferred, the transaction is treated as a leasing transaction, resulting in an operating lease between the Group and the customer. No deliveries of engines were treated as operating leases during 2005. Depending on the specific circumstances, where applicable, the financing arrangements may result in the consolidation of the entity established to facilitate the financing. Such special purpose entities will be consolidated as required by IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements if it is considered that the Group controls the entity. The Group has consolidated one such entity (Pembroke 717 Holdings Limited).
Sales of services are recognised by reference to the stage of completion based on services performed to date. The assessment of the stage of completion is dependent on the nature of the contract, but will generally be based on: costs incurred to the extent these relate to services performed up to the reporting date; achievement of contractual milestones where appropriate; or flying hours or equivalent for long-term aftermarket arrangements.
Linked sales of product and services are treated as a single contract where these components have been negotiated as a single commercial package and are so closely interrelated that they do not operate independently of each other and are considered to form a single project with an overall profit margin. Revenue is recognised on the same basis as for other sales of products and services as described above.
Provided that the outcome of construction contracts can be assessed with reasonable certainty, the revenues and costs on such contracts are recognised based on stage of completion and the overall contract profitability.
Full provision is made for any estimated losses to completion of contracts having regard to the overall substance of the arrangements.
Progress payments received, when greater than recorded revenue are deducted from the value of work in progress except to the extent that payments on account exceed the value of work in progress on any contract where the excess is included in trade and other payables. The amount by which recorded revenue of long-term contracts is in excess of payments on account is classified as 'amounts recoverable on contracts' and is separately disclosed within trade and other receivables.
Risk and revenue sharing partnerships (RRSPs)
From time to time, the Group enters into arrangements with partners who, in return for a share in future programme revenues or profits, make cash payments that are not refundable (except under certain remote circumstances). Cash sums received, which reimburse the Group for past expenditure, are credited to other operating income. The arrangements also require partners to undertake development work and/or supply components for use in the programme at their own expense. No accounting entries are recorded where partners undertake such development work or where programme components are supplied by partners because no obligation arises unless and until programme sales are made; instead, payments to partners for their share in the programme are charged to cost of sales as programme revenues arise.
The Group has arrangements with partners who do not undertake development work or supply parts. Such arrangements are considered to be financial instruments as defined by IAS 32 and are accounted for using the amortised cost method.
Where a government or similar body invests in a development programme, the Group treats such receipts as the sale of an interest in the programme. Subsequent payments are royalty payments and are matched to related sales.
Research and development
In accordance with IAS 38 'Intangible Assets', expenditure incurred on research and development, excluding known recoverable amounts on contracts, and contributions to shared engineering programmes, is distinguished as relating either to a research phase or to a development phase.
All research phase expenditure is charged to the income statement. For development expenditure, this is capitalised as an internally generated intangible asset, only if it meets strict criteria, relating in particular to technical feasibility and generation of future economic benefits.
Expenditure that cannot be classified into these two categories is treated as being incurred in the research phase. The Group considers that, due to the complex nature of new equipment programmes, it is not possible to distinguish reliably between research and development activities until relatively late in the programme.
Expenditure capitalised is amortised over its useful economic life, up to a maximum of 15 years from the entry-into-service of the product. The intangible assets are assessed for impairment bi-annually, or earlier if there are indications of impairment.
Recoverable engine costs
On occasion, the Group may sell original equipment to customers at a value below its cost, on the basis that this deficit will be recovered from future aftermarket sales to the original customer. Where the Group has a contractual right to supply aftermarket parts to the customer and its intellectual rights, warranty arrangements and statutory airworthiness requirements provide reasonable control over this supply; these arrangements are considered to meet the definition of an intangible asset. Such intangible assets are recognised and amortised on a straight-line basis over the expected period of utilisation by the original customer, generally a maximum of ten years unless the specific contractual circumstances indicate a longer period. The assets are tested for impairment on a bi-annual basis.
Goodwill represents the excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration for shares in subsidiary undertakings and joint ventures over the fair value to the Group of the net assets acquired.
- To December 31, 1997: Goodwill was written off to reserves in the year of acquisition.
- From January 1, 1998: Goodwill was recognised within intangible assets in the year in which it arose and amortised on a straight line basis over its useful economic life, up to a maximum of 20 years.
- From January 1, 2004, in accordance with IFRS 3 'Business Combinations' goodwill is recognised as per (ii) above but is no longer amortised. Instead it is subject to annual impairment testing.
Certification costs and participation fees
Costs incurred in respect of meeting regulatory certification requirements for new civil engine/aircraft combinations and payments made to airframe manufacturers for this, and participation fees, are carried forward in intangible assets to the extent that they can be recovered out of future sales and are charged to the income statement over the programme life, up to a maximum of 15 years.
Pensions and similar benefits (principally healthcare) are accounted for under IAS 19 'Employee Benefits'. For defined benefit plans, obligations are measured at discounted present value whilst plan assets are recorded at fair value. The service and financing costs of such plans are recognised separately in the income statement; current service costs are spread systematically over the lives of employees and financing costs are recognised in the periods in which they arise. The Group has adopted the amendment to IAS 19 early, whereby actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of recognised income and expense.
Payments to defined contribution schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due.
The Group applied the requirements of IFRS 2 Share-based Payments from January 1, 2004. In accordance with the transition provisions, IFRS 2 has been applied to all grants made after November 7, 2002 that were unvested as of January 1, 2005.
The Group issues equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value (excluding the effect of non-market based vesting conditions) at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group's estimate of shares or options that will eventually vest. For cash-settled share-based payments a liability equal to the proportion of the goods or services received is recognised at the current fair value determined at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is measured using the binomial pricing model for the sharesave plans and the Executive Share Option Plan (ESOP). Fair values of awards made under the Performance Share Plan (PSP) are measured using a pricing model adjusted to reflect non-entitlement to dividends (or equivalent) and the Total Shareholder Return market-based performance condition.
See note 27 for further description of the share-based payment plans.
IAS 39 requires the classification of financial instruments into separate categories for which the accounting requirement is different. Rolls-Royce has classified its financial instruments as follows:
- Fixed deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions and trade receivables, are classified as loans and receivables.
- Investments (other than interests in joint ventures and fixed deposits) and short-term deposits (other than fixed deposits) are classified as available for sale.
- Borrowings, trade payables, certain risk and revenue sharing partnerships and B Shares are classified as other liabilities.
- Derivatives, comprising foreign exchange contracts, interest rate swaps and commodity swaps are classified as held for trading.
Financial instruments are initially measured at fair value. Their subsequent measurement depends on their classification:
- Loans and receivables and other liabilities are held at amortised cost and not revalued unless they are included in a fair value hedge accounting relationship. Where such a relationship exists, the instruments are revalued in respect of the risk being hedged. If instruments held at amortised cost are hedged, generally by interest rate swaps, and the hedges are effective, the carrying values are adjusted for changes in fair value, which are included in the income statement.
- Available for sale assets are held at fair value. Changes in fair value arising from changes in exchange rates are included in the income statement. All other changes in fair value are taken to equity. On disposal of the related asset, the accumulated changes in value recorded in equity are included in the gain or loss recorded in the income statement.
- Held for trading instruments are held at fair value. Changes in fair value are included in the income statement unless the instrument is included in a cash flow hedge. If the instruments are included in a cash flow hedging relationship, which is effective, changes in value are taken to equity. When the hedged forecast transaction occurs, amounts previously recorded in equity are recognised in the income statement.
- Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on transactions are recognised in the income statement.
The Group does not apply hedge accounting in respect of forward foreign exchange contracts held to manage the cash flow exposures of forecast transactions denominated in foreign currencies.
The Group does not apply hedge accounting in respect of commodity swaps held to manage the cash flow exposures of forecast transactions in those commodities.
The Group applies hedge accounting in respect of transactions entered into to manage the fair value and cash flow exposures of its borrowings. Forward foreign exchange contracts are held to manage the fair value exposures of borrowings denominated in foreign currencies and are designated as fair value hedges. Interest rate swaps are held to manage the interest rate exposures and are designated as fair value or cash flow hedges of fixed and floating rate borrowings respectively.
Changes in the fair values of derivatives that are designated as cash flow hedges and are effective are recognised directly in equity. Any ineffectiveness in the hedging relationships is included in the income statement. The amounts deferred in equity are recognised in the income statement to match the recognition of the hedged item.
Changes in the fair values of derivatives designated as fair value hedges and changes in fair value of the related hedged item are recognised directly in the income statement.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, for cash flow hedges, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in equity, is retained in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in equity is transferred to the income statement.
The portion of a gain or loss on an instrument used to hedge a net investment in a foreign operation that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised directly in equity. The ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Until December 31, 2004, and as allowed by IFRS 1, the Group applied hedge accounting for forecast foreign exchange transactions and commodity exposures in accordance with UK GAAP. On January 1, 2005, the fair values of derivatives used for hedging these exposures were included in the transition hedging reserve. This reserve is released to the income statement based on the designation of the hedges on January 1, 2005.
Interest receivable/payable is credited/charged to the income statement using the effective interest method.
The tax charge on the profit or loss for the year comprises current and deferred tax.
Current tax is the expected tax payable for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet liability method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries and joint ventures, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax is calculated using the enacted or substantively enacted rates that are expected to apply when the asset or liability is settled. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the income statement, except when it relates to items credited or charged directly to equity in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.
Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the assets can be utilised.
A segment is a distinguishable component of the Group that is engaged in providing products and services. As the risks and rates of return are predominately affected by differences in these products and services, the primary format for reporting segment information is based on business segments.
Inventory and work in progress are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value on a first-in, first-out basis. Cost comprises direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling prices less all estimated costs of completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits with a maturity of three months or less on inception. The Group considers overdrafts (repayable on demand) to be an integral part of its cash management activities and these are included in cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of the cash flow statement.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any provision for impairments in value.
Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis to write off the cost, less the estimated residual value, of property, plant and equipment over their estimated useful lives. Estimated useful lives are as follows:
- Land and buildings, as advised by the Group's professional advisors:
- Freehold buildings - five to 45 years (average 23 years).
- Leasehold buildings - lower of advisors' estimates or period of lease.
- No depreciation is provided on freehold land.
- Plant and equipment - five to 25 years (average 16 years)
- Aircraft and engines - five to 20 years (average 13 years)
- No depreciation is provided on assets in the course of construction.
- As Lessee
Assets financed by leasing agreements which give rights approximating to ownership (finance leases) have been capitalised at their fair value and depreciation is provided on the basis of the Group depreciation policy. The capital elements of future obligations under finance leases are included as liabilities in the balance sheet and the current year's interest element, having been allocated to accounting periods to give a constant periodic rate of charge on the outstanding liability, is charged to the income statement. The annual payments under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis.
Amounts receivable under finance leases are included within receivables and represent the total amount outstanding under the lease agreements less unearned income. Finance lease income, having been allocated to accounting periods to give a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment, is included in revenue.
Rentals receivable under operating leases are included in revenue on a straight-line basis.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that the Group will be required to settle that obligation. Provisions are measured at the directors' best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date, and are discounted to present value where the effect is material.
In connection with the sale of its products, the Group will, on some occasions, provide financing support for its customers. These arrangements fall into two categories; credit based guarantees and asset value guarantees. In accordance with the requirements of IAS 39 and IFRS 4, credit based guarantees are treated as insurance contracts. As the Group considers asset value guarantees as being non-financial liabilities, these have also been treated as insurance contracts.
The Group's contingent liabilities related to financing arrangements are spread over many years and relate to a number of customers and a broad product portfolio, and are reported on a discounted basis.
Government grants are recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to compensate.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty
In applying the above accounting policies, management has made appropriate estimates in many areas, and the actual outcome may differ from those calculated. The key sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date, that have a significant risk of causing material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are:
Forecasts and discount rates
The carrying value of a number of items on the balance sheet are dependent on the estimates of future cash flows arising from the Group's operations:
- The impairment tests for goodwill are dependent on forecasts of the cash flows of the cash generating units that give rise to the goodwill and the discount rate applied. No impairment resulted from the annual impairment tests in 2005.
- If the assessment of development, participation, certification and recoverable engine costs recognised as intangible assets indicates the possibility of impairment, a detailed impairment test is undertaken. The impairment test would be dependent on the forecast cash flows of the engine programmes and customer aftermarket activity as appropriate and the discount rate applied. No impairment resulted from the assessment in 2005.
- The financial liabilities arising from financial risk and revenue sharing partnerships are valued at each reporting date using the amortised cost method. This involves calculating the present value of the forecast cash flows of the arrangement using the internal rate of return at the inception of the arrangement as the discount rate.
- The realisation of the deferred tax assets recognised is dependent on the generation of sufficient future taxable profits. The Group recognises deferred tax assets where it is more likely than not that the benefit will be realised.
Assessment of long-term contractual arrangements
The Group has long-term contracts that fall into different accounting periods. In assessing the allocation of revenues and costs to individual accounting periods, and the consequential assets and liabilities, the Group estimates the total revenues and costs forecast to arise in respect of the contract and the stage of completion based on an appropriate measure of performance.
The Group's defined benefit pension schemes and similar arrangements are assessed annually in accordance with IAS 19. The accounting valuation, which was based on assumptions determined with independent actuarial advice, resulted in a deficit of £1,659m before deferred taxation being recognised on the balance sheet at December 31, 2005. The size of the deficit is sensitive to the market value of the assets held by the schemes and to actuarial assumptions, which include price inflation, pension and salary increases, the discount rate used in assessing actuarial liabilities, mortality and other demographic assumptions and the levels of contributions. Further details are included in note 23.
As described in the accounting policy above, the Group measures provisions at the directors' best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These estimates are made, taking account of information available and different possible outcomes.
As described in note 30, the Group has significant long-term contingent obligations. The directors consider that the possibility that there will be any significant loss arising from these contingencies as remote. In reaching this opinion, the directors have considered the likelihood of the contingency crystallising and have taken account of forecast aircraft values that generally provide security against the contingent liability.
The Group has adopted the exemption granted by IFRS 1 that IAS 32 and IAS 39 Financial Instruments need not be applied to the comparative period. Consequently the 2004 disclosure provided for financial instruments (note 28) is in accordance with UK GAAP, under which the accounting treatment of the key financial instruments used by the Group is as follows:
- Gains or losses arising on forward exchange contracts are taken to the profit and loss account in the same period as the underlying transaction.
- Net interest arising on interest rate agreements is taken to the profit and loss account.
- Premiums paid or received on currency options are taken to the profit and loss account when the option expires or matures.
- Gains or losses arising on jet fuel swaps are taken to the profit and loss account in the same period as the underlying transaction.
If the underlying transaction to a hedge ceases to exist, the hedge is terminated and the profits and losses on termination are recognised in the profit and loss account immediately. If the hedge transaction is terminated, the profits and losses on termination are held in the balance sheet and amortised over the life of the original underlying transactions.
Revisions to IFRS not applicable in 2005
During 2005, the IASB published an amendment to IAS 39 relating to Financial Guarantee Contracts. This amendment is applicable from 2006 and will require the accounting policy for credit based guarantees to be amended. The Group has not finalised its assessment of the impact of adopting this amendment, but does not anticipate that its impact on the income statement will be significant.
IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures and Amendment to IAS 1 Capital Disclosures are applicable from 2007. These amendments to disclosure requirements will have no effect on the reported results.
The Group does not consider that any other standards or interpretations issued by the IASB, but not yet applicable, will have a significant impact on the financial statements.