next: 2 Segmental analysis
Basis of accountingThe financial statements have been prepared in accordance with applicable accounting standards on the historical cost basis, modified to include the revaluation of land and buildings.
The Group has adopted UITF 38 ‘Accounting for ESOP Trusts’, under which own shares have been reclassified as a deduction from shareholders funds. The effect has been to reduce fixed asset investments by £2m (2003 £1m).
Basis of consolidationThe Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and all of its subsidiary undertakings made up to December 31, together with the Group’s share of the results up to December 31 of:
- Joint ventures
A joint venture is an entity in which the Group holds a long-term interest and which is jointly controlled by the Group and one or more other venturers under a contractual arrangement. The results of joint ventures are accounted for using the gross equity method of accounting.
- Joint arrangements that are not entities
The Group has certain contractual arrangements with other participants to engage in joint activities that do not create an entity carrying on a trade or business of its own. The Group includes its share of assets, liabilities and cash flows in such joint arrangements,measured in accordance with the terms of each arrangement, which is usually pro rata to the Group’s risk interest in the joint arrangement.
Purchased goodwillGoodwill represents the excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration for shares in subsidiary undertakings and joint ventures over the fair value to the Group of the net assets acquired.
- To December 31, 1997: Goodwill was written off to reserves in the year of acquisition.The profit or loss on the disposal of a business acquired before December 31, 1997 takes into account the attributable value of purchased goodwill relating to that business.
- From January 1, 1998: Goodwill has been recognised within fixed assets in the year in which it arises and amortised on a straight line basis over its useful economic life, up to a maximum of 20 years.
Revenue recognitionRevenues comprise sales to outside customers after discounts, and excluding value added tax.
Sales of products are recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the customer, the sales price agreed and the receipt of payment can be assured.
Sales of services and long-term contracts are recognised when the outcome of the transaction can be reliably estimated. Revenue is recognised by reference to the stage of completion based on services performed to date as a percentage of the total contractual obligation.
Linked sales of product and services are treated as a single long-term contract where these components have been negotiated as a single commercial package and are so closely interrelated that they do not operate independently of each other and form a single project with an overall profit margin. Revenue is recognised on the same basis as for other long-term contracts as described above.
Provided that the outcome of long-term contracts can be assessed with reasonable certainty, the attributable profit recognised on such contracts is based on stage of completion and the overall contract profitability, after including an appropriate risk factor, which is progressively reduced over the life of the contract.
Full provision is made for any estimated losses to completion of contracts having regard to the overall substance of the arrangements including, if appropriate, related commitments and undertakings given by customers.
Progress payments received, when greater than recorded turnover, are deducted from the value of work in progress except to the extent that payments on account exceed the value of work in progress on any contract where the excess is included in creditors. The amount by which recorded turnover of long-term contracts is in excess of payments on account is classified as ‘amounts recoverable on contracts’ and is separately disclosed within debtors.
StockStock and work in progress are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
Risk and revenue sharing partnershipsFrom time to time, the Group enters into arrangements with partners who, in return for a share in future programme revenues or profits, make cash payments which are not refundable (except under certain remote circumstances). Cash sums received, which reimburse the Group for past expenditure, are credited to other operating income. The arrangements may also require partners to undertake development work and/or supply components at their own expense for use in the programme. No accounting entries are recorded where partners undertake such development work or where programme components are supplied by partners because no obligation arises unless and until programme sales are made; instead, payments to partners for their share in the programme are charged to cost of sales as programme revenues arise.
Research and developmentThe charge to the profit and loss account consists of research and development expenditure incurred in the year, excluding known recoverable costs on contracts, contributions to shared engineering programmes and application engineering. Application engineering expenditure, incurred in the adaptation of existing technology to new products, is capitalised and amortised over the programme life, up to a maximum of ten years, where both the technical and commercial risks are considered to be sufficiently low.
Foreign currenciesAssets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into sterling at the rate ruling at the year end or, where applicable, at the estimated sterling equivalent, taking account of future foreign exchange and similar contracts. The trading results of overseas undertakings are translated at the average exchange rates for the year or, where applicable, at the estimated sterling equivalent, taking account of future foreign exchange and similar contracts. Exchange adjustments arising from the retranslation of the opening net investments, and from the translation of the profits or losses at average rates, are taken to reserves. Other exchange differences, including those arising from currency conversions in the usual course of trading, are taken into account in determining profit on ordinary activities before taxation.
Treasury instrumentsThe accounting treatment of the key instruments used by the Group is as follows:
- Gains or losses arising on forward exchange contracts are taken to the profit and loss account in the same period as the underlying transaction.
- Net interest arising on interest rate agreements is taken to the profit and loss account.
- Premiums paid or received on currency options are taken to the profit and loss account when the option expires or matures.
- Gains or losses arising on jet fuel swaps are taken to the profit and loss account in the same period as the underlying transaction.
Post-retirement benefitsContributions to Group defined benefit pension schemes are charged to the profit and loss account so as to spread the cost of pensions at a substantially level percentage of payroll costs over employees’ service lives.
The cost of providing post-retirement benefits other than pensions is charged to the profit and loss account over the service lives of the relevant employees.
Certification costs and participation feesCosts incurred in respect of meeting regulatory certification requirements for new civil engine/aircraft combinations and payments made to airframe manufacturers for this, and participation fees, are carried forward in intangible assets to the extent that they can be recovered out of future sales and are charged to the profit and loss account over the programme life, up to a maximum of ten years.
InterestInterest payable is charged to the profit and loss account as incurred, except where the borrowing finances tangible fixed assets in the course of construction relating to power development projects. Such interest is capitalised until the asset is complete and is then written off by way of depreciation of the relevant asset.
Interest receivable is credited to the profit and loss account as earned.
TaxationProvision for taxation is made at the current rate and for deferred taxation at the projected rate on all timing differences which have originated, but not reversed at the balance sheet date.
Scrip dividendsThe amounts of dividends taken as shares instead of cash under the scrip dividend scheme have been added back to reserves. The nominal value of shares issued under the scheme has been funded out of the share premium account.
B SharesThe Company issues B Shares to shareholders in place of a dividend. These can be redeemed for cash or converted into ordinary shares in the Company. As this is not classed as a dividend, no accrual is made for this in the financial statements.
Accounting for leases
- As Lessee
Assets financed by leasing agreements which give rights approximating to ownership (finance leases) have been capitalised at amounts equal to the original cost of the assets to the lessors and depreciation provided on the basis of the Group depreciation policy. The capital elements of future obligations under finance leases are included as liabilities in the balance sheet and the current year’s interest element,having been allocated to accounting periods to give a constant periodic rate of charge on the outstanding balance, is charged to the profit and loss account.
The annual payments under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the profit and loss account on an accruals basis.
- As Lessor
Amounts receivable under finance leases are included under debtors and represent the total amount outstanding under lease agreements less unearned income. Finance lease income, having been allocated to accounting periods to give a constant periodic rate of return on the net cash investment, is included in turnover.
Rentals receivable under operating leases are included in turnover on an accruals basis.
Tangible fixed assets and depreciationTangible fixed assets are stated at cost or valuation less accumulated depreciation and any provision for impairments in value.
Depreciation is provided on the following basis:
- Land and buildings
Depreciation is provided on the original cost of purchases since 1996 and on the valuation of properties adopted at December 31, 1996 and is calculated on a straight line basis at rates sufficient to reduce them to their estimated residual value. Estimated lives, as advised by the Group’s professional valuers, are:
- Freehold buildings – five to 45 years (average 23 years).
- Leasehold land and buildings – lower of valuers’ estimates or period of lease.
- Plant and equipment
Depreciation is provided on the original cost of plant and equipment and is calculated on a straight line basis at rates sufficient to reduce them to their estimated residual value. Estimated lives are in the range five to 25 years (average 15 years).
- Aircraft and engines
Depreciation is provided on the original cost of aircraft and engines and is calculated on a straight line basis at rates sufficient to reduce them to their estimated residual value. Estimated lives are in the range five to 20 years (average 13 years).
- In course of construction
No depreciation is provided on assets in the course of construction.