*see note 3
Sir John Rose, Chief Executive, said:
“We have delivered a good set of results, with strong order intake, cash flow and underlying profit growth achieved in challenging conditions.
“2009 will be a very difficult year for the global economy. Our well diversified portfolio, the scale of our installed base and the strength of our balance sheet give us confidence that Rolls-Royce will respond successfully to current challenges and develop the business for the longer term.
“Our current view is that in 2009 underlying revenues will continue to grow, with underlying profits remaining broadly similar to those achieved in 2008. Average net cash is expected to increase despite a cash outflow in the year”.
Rolls-Royce’s performance in 2008 was characterised by strong order intake, cash inflow and underlying profit growth. The current economic crisis will have an impact on the Group, its customers and suppliers, but it is too early to be precise about the scale and duration of these effects. The Board fully recognises the unprecedented nature of the challenges that lie ahead, but is confident that the Group is better positioned than in the past and that its financial and portfolio strengths will enable it, in the short term, to respond to current uncertainties and continue to develop the business. Over the next ten years, the longevity of the Group’s programmes and its technological leadership, the scale of the order book and the increasing importance of services suggest that Rolls-Royce has the capability to double its revenues through organic growth.The Group is well placed to respond effectively to the current challenging external environment for a number of reasons:·
The Board is proposing a total shareholder payment for the year of 14.30p per share, a 10 per cent increase.
Rolls-Royce delivered strong underlying revenues, cash flow and growth in underlying profits in 2008.
Despite some weakening demand towards the end of the year, the Group’s global presence has enabled it to secure orders worth £21.5bn, increasing the order book by 21 per cent to a record £55.5bn.
Sales increased by 22 per cent to £9,082m relative to 2007 and underlying sales grew by 17 per cent, with a 24 per cent growth in original equipment and an 11 per cent increase in services revenues. This growth was achieved despite delays on major airframe programmes that reduced civil engine deliveries from the original programme assumptions.
We have continued to invest in the acquisition and development of technology. In 2008 investment in research and development totalled £885m (2007 £824m), of which the Group funded around 55 per cent, representing 5.4 per cent of underlying sales. We expect investment in research and development to account for a similar proportion of underlying sales in 2009.
Underlying profit before tax, which adjusts primarily for the non-cash impact of the hedge book, increased by ten per cent to £880m (2007 £800m). This reflected strong growth in original equipment and service revenues and was despite an eight cent deterioration in the achieved US dollar rate, which reduced profit by £104m (2007 £92m), and a four per cent increase in unit costs.
The Group’s published loss before tax of £1,892m includes the effects of marking to market the Group’s financial instruments, for which hedge accounting is not adopted. These consist mostly of the book of foreign exchange contracts outstanding at 31 December 2008. The impact of the mark to market is included within net financing in the income statement (see note 4). The net adjustments caused a net £2.8bn reduction in published profits. The majority of these adjustments are non-cash, accounting adjustments required under IAS 39 for financial instruments that the Group holds to provide stability of future trading cash flows and do not reflect the underlying trading performance of the Group in 2008.
The balance sheet is robust, with Rolls-Royce enjoying a strong cash position, credit rating and no material refinancing until 2011. Net cash inflow in 2008 was £570m after a £151m investment in joint ventures and acquisitions and the positive effect of £439m of translation benefits. This resulted in a net cash balance of £1,458m at the year-end.
Changes to the UK pension schemes in 2007 have significantly reduced volatility and will enable Rolls-Royce to plan future funding requirements more precisely. The Group made a special £500m injection into the UK pension funds in 2007 and changed the investment strategy so that less priority was given to equity investments, thereby reducing the volatility inherent in the schemes’ asset mix. On an accounting basis the funds overall are in surplus. Funding on more conservative actuarial assumptions will be considerably less volatile in future.
Basic earnings per share were (73.63)p (2007 33.67p), reflecting the mark to market adjustments above, with underlying earnings per share increasing by eight per cent to 36.70p (2007 34.06p).
Further details of the Group’s trading performance are contained in the Financial Review.Group and Business sector underlying trading results 2008
|Civil Aerospace||Defence Aerospace||Marine||Energy||Group|
|UPBFCT||Civil Aerospace||Defence Aerospace||Marine||Energy||Central||Group|
The Group continued to expand its capability in 2008, forming a new business unit to address the increased global demand for civil nuclear power and establishing strategic joint ventures with GKN plc, to develop composite materials for fan blades, and with Goodrich Corporation, to develop and manufacture engine controls.
Good progress has been made with strengthening the Group’s operational performance and restructuring support functions. The programme to upgrade our UK facilities is largely complete. The opening of the new large engine assembly and test facility in Singapore and the advanced manufacturing, assembly and test facility at Crosspointe in the US have been put back to reflect the timing of major new programmes.
In January 2008, Rolls-Royce announced a 2,300 reduction in the number of people working in support functions, a programme which was completed by the end of the year at no incremental cost. In November 2008, the Group announced a further proposed reduction of 1,500-2,000 jobs, reflecting a more cautious approach to the planning of factory load and delivery expectations for 2009.
Civil Aerospace made significant progress in 2008 despite increasingly challenging conditions. New engine deliveries, at 987, were at their highest level since 2001, increasing the installed thrust of the fleet by some 21m lbs, net of retirements. Service revenues grew by seven per cent relative to 2007, accounting for 61 per cent of civil aerospace revenues.
In the widebody sector, the Trent received orders for 408 engines, the second highest level of Trent orders on record. The Airbus A350 XWB continued to attract strong interest and the Trent XWB will power all 400 aircraft confirmed to date.
In the narrowbody market, the V2500 made strong progress with a record 351 engines delivered for the Airbus A320. In the corporate and regional sector, the 3000th AE3007 engine was delivered, while the BR725 for the new Gulfstream G650 corporate aircraft achieved first engine run on time.
Defence Aerospace continued to strengthen its business in 2008. Significant contracts awarded during the year included a $915m contract from Alenia Aeronautica for the AE2100 engine on the C-27J military transporter, a £700m PFI contract from the UK Ministry of Defence for the Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft and a number of important service contracts worth more than £770m.
Other highlights included the first flight of the F-35 STOVL (Short Take Off and Vertical Landing) version of the Joint Strike Fighter. The F136 engine, developed with GE for all F-35 variants, secured funding for 2009 and passed all test milestones.
Defence Aerospace’s other major collaborative programme – the TP400 engine for the A400M military transport aircraft made progress in the year. It has completed more than 2,000 hours of ground testing and has successfully undertaken its first flights on the flying testbed.
Marine enjoyed very strong revenue growth in 2008 and is now the second largest Rolls-Royce business in revenue terms. Underlying service revenues grew significantly in the year, up 31 per cent from 2007.
The offshore sector was central to Marine’s 2008 performance, based on the success of its specialist UT design and integrated systems capability.
Other highlights included the entry into service of the MT30, a derivative of the Trent 800, on the USS Freedom, the first vessel of the US Littoral Combat Ship programme, and an order for four MT30s from the UK Ministry of Defence for its new aircraft carriers.
Energy won a record level of new business in 2008 with the industrial Trent securing orders and reservations for 37 units in the oil and gas and power generation sectors. Underlying revenues increased by 35 per cent, driven by strong demand in the oil and gas sector and increasing activity in power generation markets.
The Group’s fuel cell testing programme continued. However, the decision was taken to focus future activity on the development of the technology in order to match product readiness with market demand. As a result, annual investment in the programme will reduce in 2009.
Further details on the performance of the businesses and the outlook for 2009 are contained in the Review by Business Sectors section below.
The current economic crisis is widely expected to be unprecedented in terms of its severity, duration and global impact. It is inevitable that companies will be affected to varying degrees, regardless of the business strategies they pursue or the markets they serve.
Rolls-Royce will not be immune from this deterioration in the global economy but the Board believes that the Group will be resilient in these challenging conditions, and approaches the current uncertainty from a position of much greater strength than in previous recessions.
Falling global growth rates, coupled with shortages of customer finance, are expected to cause a softening in some of the Group’s markets, in particular in the narrowbody and corporate and regional sectors where there is already evidence of reducing demand. Credit shortages may also create difficulties for some of the Group’s suppliers. However, the consistent strategy pursued by the Group over many years has created a strong and broadly based business which is well placed to deal with these challenges as they arise.
The Board believes the following factors will help the Group to mitigate the impact of the global economic slowdown:
The Group expects that in 2009 its global markets will be affected by reducing demand and the impact of financing constraints. We will continue to manage the consequences of airframe programme slippages.
Cash generation will be affected by the reduction in new orders and associated deposit intake and the impact on inventory of any delays or cancellations. There are also likely to be requests for customer and supplier financial support which will be considered by the Group on a case by case basis. In the current environment it is expected that in 2009 despite a cash outflow, the average net cash balance of the Group will increase. The Group’s current view is that underlying revenues will continue to grow and underlying profits for the year will be broadly similar to those achieved in 2008.
This Annual Results Announcement contains certain forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. In particular, all statements that express forecasts, expectations and projections with respect to future matters, including trends in results of operations, margins, growth rates, overall market trends, the impact of interest or exchange rates, the availability of financing to the Company, anticipated cost savings or synergies and the completion of the Company's strategic transactions, are forward-looking statements. By their nature, these statements and forecasts involve risk and uncertainty because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. There are a number of factors that could cause actual results or developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements and forecasts. The forward-looking statements reflect the knowledge and information available at the date of preparation of this Annual Results Announcement, and will not be updated during the year. Nothing in this Annual Results Announcement should be construed as a profit forecast.
|Order book (£bn)||43.5||35.9|
|Underlying revenues (£m)||4,502||4,038|
|Underlying services revenues (£m)||2,726||2,554|
|Underlying profit before financing (£m)||566||564|
The Civil Aerospace portfolio continues to expand, covering a broad range of aircraft across all sectors from corporate and regional to the largest widebody aircraft. New engine deliveries, at 987, were at their highest level since 2001, increasing the installed thrust of the fleet by some 21m lbs, net of retirements.
In the widebody sector, the division secured its second highest level of Trent orders, for 408 Trent engines, supporting another strong increase in the order book.
The Trent 1000 for the Boeing 787 completed further successful endurance testing, equivalent to two years of service. The Trent 900 for the Airbus A380 demonstrated excellent reliability during its first full year in service with Singapore Airlines (SIA) and engines are now installed on nine SIA and Qantas aircraft. The outlook for the Trent XWB, the sole engine on the Airbus A350 XWB, is positive; orders for engines for 400 aircraft are now confirmed, while risk and revenue sharing partnerships for 40 per cent of the programme were agreed in 2008.
In the narrow body market, the V2500 programme performed strongly, with orders for more than 600 engines and a record 351 engines delivered for the Airbus A320. The V2500 SelectOne upgrade entered service on time, offering reduced fuel burn and increased time on wing between overhauls, enhancing its leading position as the most environmentally friendly engine for this application.
In the corporate and regional market, the 3000th AE3007 engine was delivered. Meanwhile the BR725, the sole engine for the new Gulfstream G650 corporate aircraft, achieved first engine run on time. The G650 has enjoyed unprecedented market interest, reinforcing the Group’s leading position in the corporate market.
Services revenues grew by seven per cent relative to 2007, representing 61 per cent of Civil Aerospace revenues. Around 80 per cent of in-service Trent and corporate engines are now covered by TotalCare® and CorporateCare® contracts respectively, reflecting the continued interest in these long-term service arrangements.
Global air travel and air freight is already being affected by the economic downturn. The scale of the future impact is unclear, with airframe delays and concerns about customer financing adding to the uncertainties surrounding engine volumes.
The Group expects engine deliveries to fall in 2009 with an increasing risk of deferrals and cancellations. Weaker volumes in the narrowbody and the corporate and regional sectors and stable Trent deliveries for widebody aircraft.
Growth in services revenues will be modest in 2009, held back by lower utilisation levels, the impact of parked aircraft and some softening of uncontracted “Time and Material” service revenues. As a consequence, underlying profits will be lower in 2009.
|Order book (£bn)||5.5||4.4|
|Underlying revenues (£m)||1,686||1,673|
|Underlying services revenues (£m)||947||877|
|Underlying profit before financing (£m)||223||199|
The Defence Aerospace business provides engines and support across all the major sectors of the defence market to 160 customers in 103 countries. With over 18,000 engines in service worldwide on fixed-wing applications, it has the broadest customer base of any of its peers.
2008 was a year of significant progress for the business. Considerable opportunities exist in the global defence market, particularly in the transport and helicopter sectors where Defence Aerospace made strong progress in 2008. The business continues to develop innovative aftermarket support, with services now generating over 56 per cent of revenues.
A $915m agreement was signed with Alenia Aeronautica for the AE 2100 engine on the C-27J, which reinforced the business’ market leading position in the military transport market. Engine deliveries for transport aircraft including the C-130J and V22-Osprey, will support a strong increase in revenues in 2009.
As part of the AirTanker consortium, the business secured a 27-year engine and support contract worth over £700m from the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), for Trent 700 engines for the Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft programme.
Good progress was made on both engine programmes for the Joint Strike Fighter. First flight of the F-35 STOVL (Short Take Off and Vertical Landing) version, fitted with the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem®, took place and the first LiftSystem production contract was secured at a value of $131m. The F136 engine, jointly developed with GE for all F-35 variants, achieved funding for 2009 and passed all its test milestones prior to delivery of the first production standard engine in early 2009.
Defence Aerospace’s other major collaborative programme – the TP400 engine for the A400M military transport aircraft made progress in the year. It has completed more than 2,000 hours of ground testing and has successfully undertaken its first flights on the flying testbed.
A number of major new service contracts totalling more than £770m were signed during the year. These included agreements with the US Department of Defense to support the T-45 for the US Navy Goshawk trainer and with the UK MoD, to support the Gnome for the Sea King helicopter and the Pegasus for the UK Harrier fleet.
Further strong growth in engine deliveries for the military transport sector is expected to support another year of profit growth in 2009.
|Order book (£bn)||5.2||4.7|
|Underlying revenues (£m)||2,204||1,548|
|Underlying services revenues (£m)||712||545|
|Underlying profit before financing (£m)||183||113|
Marine is now the second largest Rolls-Royce business in revenue terms. It is a world leader in the provision of integrated marine propulsion systems, offering a unique set of products and services for the naval and commercial sectors. It has an installed equipment base of over 30,000 vessels, creating a major opportunity for services growth.
The business made strong progress in 2008. The order book increased by 11 per cent to £5.2bn, underpinned by substantial order flow for vessels and power propulsion for the offshore sector. The offshore oil and gas market remained robust, with revenues growing by 57 per cent to £901m in 2008, accounting for 41 per cent of total revenues in the year.
Demand from the merchant sector for specialist vessels was also strong, with revenues accounting for 24 per cent of 2008 revenues. Total underlying revenues increased by 42 per cent to £2.2bn and an improved mix helped strengthen margins, supporting a very strong improvement in profitability.
The naval segment of Marine represented 28 per cent of 2008 revenues and continued to perform well. The MT30, a derivative of the Trent 800, entered service on the USS Freedom, the US Navy’s first Littoral Combat Ship. In addition, a £96m order for four MT30s plus propulsion equipment was placed by the UK MoD to power its two new aircraft carriers. 2008 also marked 50 years of the Group’s relationship with the UK Government on the design, production and support of nuclear plant for the Royal Navy’s Submarine fleet.
The division’s capability in the design and supply of power electric systems was further extended with the acquisition of Scandinavian Electric Holdings AS, enabling it to supply systems for offshore vessels.
Underlying services revenues grew strongly in the year, up 31 per cent from 2007. The investment in, and expansion of, the global services network continued throughout 2008, supporting long-term growth opportunities in the Marine services sector.
There were some modest cancellations in 2008 but a record order book, market leading positions in the offshore sector and demand for high specification vessels provide good visibility of revenues in 2009 and support continuing strong growth in profitability over the year.
|Order book (£bn)||1.3||0.9|
|Underlying revenues (£m)||755||558|
|Underlying services revenues (£m)||370||289|
|Underlying profit before financing (£m)||(2)||5|
The Energy business supplies a wide range of gas turbine packages and compressors to the global oil and gas and power generation markets, with equipment operating in more than 120 countries. It continues to invest in product development for power generation including tidal power, fuel cells and civil nuclear.
The Energy business won record levels of new business in 2008, securing orders and reservations for 37 new industrial Trent units in the oil and gas and power generation sectors, both of which remained robust. This supported a further strong increase in the order book to £1.3bn, providing good visibility of activity in 2009.
Underlying revenues in 2008 increased by 35 per cent. This was driven by increasing demand for original equipment in the power generation sector and demand in oil and gas for both new equipment and support services. The £7m reduction in underlying profits from 2007 was the result of increased spend on the fuel cells development programme and a one-off benefit from technology fees in 2007 that was not repeated in 2008.
In 2008 underlying services revenues grew by 28 per cent, representing 49 per cent of divisional revenues. This growth was accounted for by strong oil and gas activity and an expanding footprint in power generation. By the end of the year long-term support agreements extended to more than 200 packages supplied by the business.
The Group’s fuel cell testing programme continued. However, the decision was taken to focus future activity on the development of the technology rather than production and manufacturing verification, in order to match product readiness with market demand. As a result, annual investment in the programme is expected to reduce in 2009.
In 2009, further growth in original equipment revenues, particularly in the power generation sector, combined with increased services activity and lower investment in fuel cells, is expected to deliver a modest level of profit for the business.
The pace and extent of currency movements have had a significant effect on the Group’s financial reporting in 2008, with the Sterling exchange rates against the USD and the Euro having the biggest impact. These movements have influenced both the reported income statement and the cash flow and closing net cash position (as set out in the cash flow statement) in the following ways:
1. Income statement – the most important impact was the end of year mark to market of outstanding financial instruments (foreign exchange contracts, interest rate, commodity and jet fuel swaps). The principal adjustments related to the Sterling/USD hedge book.
The principal movements in 2008 were as follows:
|GBP ~ USD||£1~$1.991||£1~$1.438|
|GBP ~ Euro||£1~€1.362||£1~€1.034|
|Oil – Spot Brent||$93/bbl||$49/bbl|
The impact of this mark to market is included within net financing in the income statement and caused a net £2.5bn cost, contributing to a published loss before tax of £1,892m. These adjustments are non-cash, accounting adjustments required under IAS 39 and do not, therefore, reflect the underlying trading performance of the Group in 2008.
The achieved rate on selling net USD income will be similar in 2009 to that in 2008 and will gradually improve thereafter as the Group is able to absorb the lower value of Sterling in its hedge books into the achieved rate. The revaluation costs, which are measured at a point in time, do not, therefore, represent additional currency headwinds. The improving average rate in the hedge book will lead to improving achieved rates over time.
2. Cash flow and balance sheet – The Group maintains a number of currency cash balances which vary throughout the financial year. Given the significant movements in foreign exchange rates in 2008, a number of these cash balances were inflated by the effects of retranslation at the period end causing an increase of £439m in the 2008 cash flow and hence the closing balance sheet cash position.
The firm and announced order book, at constant exchange rates, was £55.5bn (2007 £45.9bn) with good growth from all businesses. Aftermarket services included in the order book totalled £14.5bn (2007 £13.1 bn).
Revenues increased by 22 per cent, compared with 2007, to £9,082m. Revenues on an underlying basis grew by 17 per cent. Payments to industrial risk and revenue sharing partners (RRSPs), charged in cost of sales, amounted to £268m (2007 £199m).
Gross research and development investment was £885m (2007 £824m). Net research and development investment, charged to the income statement, was £403m (2007 £381m) after net capitalisation of £87m (2007 £73m) on development programmes in 2008. Receipts from RRSPs in respect of new programme developments, shown as other operating income, were £79m (2007 £50m), as key partners joined major new programmes.
Restructuring costs of £82m (2007 £52m) were charged, the increase reflecting additional costs incurred in the year relating to the Group’s programme to reduce the number of people working in support functions.
Underlying profit before financing margins fell by approximately 0.6 per cent in the period, reflecting strong growth in lower margin original equipment, further increases in the foreign exchange headwind and an increase in unit costs of four per cent relative to 2007, partially offset by improved productivity and efficiency.
The income statement recognised a tax credit of £547m (2007 £133m charge), reflecting the large mark to market loss caused by the revaluation of various financial instruments at the year end. The taxation charge on an underlying basis was £217m (2007 £193m), representing 24.7 per cent of underlying profit before tax. The underlying rate is affected by the geographical mix of profits, changes in legislation and the benefit of research and development tax credits. The 2009 underlying tax rate is expected to increase to around 26 per cent.
Underlying profit before tax was £880m (2007 £800m). Underlying earnings per share increased by eight per cent, to 36.70p (2007 34.06p) (see note 5).
Investment in intangibles during the year was £393m (2007 £296m) and included £97m (2007 £37m) for recoverable engine costs, £113m (2007 £91m) for capitalised development costs, £93m (2007 nil) relating to investments in new joint venture arrangements and a further £55m (2007 £129m) for certification costs and participation fees.
The continued development and replacement of operational facilities contributed to a total investment in property, plant and equipment of £283m (2007 £304m). Investment in 2009 is anticipated to be slightly reduced from the 2008 level as the investments in the new facilities in the USA and Singapore are rephased to reflect the timing of major new airframe programmes.
Working capital increased by £38m during the year with increased inventory of £208m offset by reduced financial working capital of £170m. Inventory increased in the year to support growth across all businesses and to minimise disruption during the transition to new operational facilities. Some reductions in deposits are expected in 2009.
Cash inflow during the year was £570m (2007 £562m, before the special injection of £500m into the UK pension schemes). Continued growth in underlying profits and good cash conversion were supported by increases in customer deposits and progress payments of £400m and the benefit of £439m from year-end currency revaluations. Cash investments of £675m in plant and equipment and intangible assets and payments to shareholders of £200m represented the major cash outflows in the period. Tax payments increased in the year to £117m (2007 £71m). As a consequence average net cash was £375m (2007 £350m). The net cash balance at the year-end was £1,458m (2007 £888m).
The Group’s cash flow in 2009 is expected to be affected by higher pension contributions, reduced deposits and progress payments and increased payments to shareholders. In addition, it is likely that the Group may be asked to provide financial support to some customers and suppliers which will be considered on a case by case basis. As a result, it is expected that there will be a cash outflow in 2009. However, the average net cash balance is anticipated to increase in 2009.
Provisions were £369m (2007 £301m). Provisions carried forward in respect of potential customer financing exposure amounted to £73m at the year-end (2007 £44m).
The overall net position of assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for TotalCare packages was an asset of £848m (2007 £550m), which includes new agreements, timing of overhauls and changes in foreign exchange rates.
There were no material changes to the Group’s gross and net contingent liabilities in 2008 (see note 11).
On an accounting basis, the UK pension schemes were £1.4bn in surplus, caused primarily by unusually high AA corporate bond rates applied to value the schemes’ future liabilities. A total of £408m of the UK surplus has been recognised as an asset on the balance sheet which together with a £550m deficit on the international pension and healthcare schemes caused a net post-retirement benefit deficit recognised on the balance sheet of £142m (2007 £123m). After taking account of deferred taxation, net post-retirement benefit deficits were £93m (2007 £88m) (see note 9).
The proposed final payment to shareholders is equivalent to 8.58 pence per ordinary share (2007 final payment 8.96p), making a total payment for the year of 14.30 pence (2007 13.00p), a ten per cent increase for the full year. The payment to shareholders will, as before, be made in the form of redeemable C shares which shareholders may either choose to retain or redeem for a cash equivalent. The Registrar, on behalf of the Group, operates a C Share Reinvestment Plan (CRIP) and can, on behalf of shareholders, purchase ordinary shares from the market rather than delivering a cash payment.
The final payment is payable on 2 July 2009 to shareholders on the register on 24 April 2009. The final day of trading with entitlement to C shares is 21 April 2009.
See the Condensed consolidated financial statements (pdf 66k)